RISK FACTORS FOR GINGIVITIS AMONG 12-15 YEAR SCHOOL CHILDREN IN BANGALORE – A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Mridusmita Pathak, Swagat Mahanta, Swatilekha Sarkar

Abstract


Background

Gingivitis is the most common and mild form of oral disease. It is important to diagnose the risks factors to treat gingivitis and for effective management of periodontal problems in early stages of life and  also to accomplish a healthy oral environment from childhood to adulthood.

Aim

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors for gingivitis among the school going children of Bangalore city.

Methods and Material

A sample of 516 school children (Male 256 and female 259) of 12-15 years old enrolled from the public and private schools in Bangalore city. Demographics and oral hygiene habits were assessed by self reported questionnaires. Socioeconomic data was collected from school records. Oral examination was carried out to find the presence of visible dental plaque and to assess Gingivitis and dental crowding using GI (Gingival Index, Loe and Silness 1964) and DAI (Dental Aesthetic Index) respectively.

 Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed using Poisson regression analysis [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval].

Chi-square test, unpaired t test, logistic regression.

Results:

Prevalence of gingivitis was 38.3% (95% CI). The mean GI and DAI scores were 0.25 (SD ± 0.36) and 20.33 (SD ± 5.6) respectively. GI (Gingival index) scores and DAI (Dental Aesthetic Index) scores are  strongly correlated with gingivitis. Logistic regression showed socioeconomic status , upper middle class, p < 0.03), oral hygiene practices, frequency of daily tooth brushing (p < 0.02),   Last visit to dentist (p < 0.01) to be significantly associated with gingivitis.

Conclusions:

Gingivitis is associated with oral hygiene practices, dental crowding , visit to dentist and sociodemographic factors.


Keywords


Dental crowding, Gingivitis, Oral Hygiene Practice, Risk factors, Socioeconomic factors

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