National plan for comprehensive education with environmental emphasis

JC Wandemberg


The need for a new educational paradigm, with emphasis on human values and the environment, is recognized by the vast majority of experts at global and national level (Delors, 1996, Wandemberg, 2015). A paradigm that restricts a paradigm that potencialice innate abilities and acquired in every human being without discrimination to develop a balanced and in harmony with its surroundings, all dimensions of the human being through continuous training of his intellect and humanity in personal and professional (Wandemberg, 2015).

Integral Education, with environmental emphasis, ensures that the human faculties such as intuitive, cognitive, emotional and motor develop permanently and harmony during their continuous interaction with their environment (Ibid).

The education provided in this century must go beyond humanism to make the student fully develop their potential benefit themselves and society by improving the quality of life and environment (Ibid) more and more.


holistic education, open systems approach

Full Text:



Abrahamsson, B. (1993). Why organizations? Sage Publications Inc.

Ackoff, R.L & Emery, F.E. (1972). On purposeful systems. Aldine-Atherton, New York.

Ackoff, R. L. (1981). Creating the Corporate Future. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Alutto, J. A., & Belasco, J. A. (1972). A typology for participation in organizational decision making. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), 117-125.

Angyal, A. (1941). Foundations for science of personality. Harvard University Press.

Antonovsky, H. (1993). Complexity, conflict chaos, coherence, coercion and civility. Social Science and Medicine, 37(8), 969-974.

Argyris, C. (1955). Organizational leadership and participative management. Journal of Business 28 (55), 1-7.

________ (1958). The organization: What makes it healthy? Harvard Business Review, March-April 1958, 107-116.

________ (1982). The executive mind and double-loop learning. Organizational Dynamics, Autumn 1982, 5-22.

Argyris, C. & Schon, D. A. (1978). Organizational Learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading. MA: Addison-Wesley.

Argyris, C. (1982). Reasoning, Learning, and Action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Banham, R. (1995-April). A changing world: science, business and risk prediction. Risk Management, 21-31.

Banathy, B. H. (1991). Systems Design of Education: A Journey to Create the Future. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications.

Barroso J.J. y Ortiz I.R. (2007) Dificultades de aprendizaje e intervención psicopedagógica en la resolución de problemas matemáticos. Revista de Educacion 342, enero-abril 2007.pp 257-286.

Barzelay, M. (1992) Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press Ltd.

Betts, F.M., and H.J. Walberg.(1992) (Unpublished manuscript). “Improving Student Achievement through Balanced Instructional Design.”

Beveridge, W.I.B. (1950). The art of scientific investigation. NY: Vintage Books.

Bion, W.R. (1961). Experiences in Groups. NY: Basic Books Inc.

_________ (1952). Group dynamics: A review. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 33, 235-247.

Boje, D. M. (1997). The neglect of Fred Emery’s theories in organization theory texts. Unpublished paper (October 27, 1997).

Boje, D.M., Gephart, R.P., & Thatchenkery, T.J. (Eds.) (1996). Postmodern management and organization theory. Sage Publications Inc.

Boyer, W.W. (1964). Bureaucracy on Trial. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc.

Bragg, J.E., & Andrews, I.R. (1973). Participative decision-making: An experimental study in a hospital. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 9(6), 727-735.

Buchholz, S. & Roth T. (1987). Creating the high performance team. New York:Wiley.

Burns, T. & Stalker, G.M. (1961). The management of innovation. Tavistock Publications.

Cabaña, S. (1994). Participative design works, partially doesn’t. In The Journal for Quality and Participation. 18 (1), 10- 19.

Carnevale, D.G. (1995). Trustworthy government. Leadership and management strategies for building trust and high performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Cernea, M. (1991). Knowledge from social science for development policies and projects. In Putting People First. Sociological Variables in Rural Development. Oxford University Press.

_______ (1995). Social Organization and Development Anthropology. Malinowsky award lecture. Human Organization. Society for Applied Anthropology, 54 (3).

Chein, I. (1972). The science of behavior and the image of man. NY: Basic Books.

Churchman, C.W. (1968). Challenge to reason. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Company.

________ (1971). The design of inquiring systems: basic concepts of systems and organization. NY: Basic Books.

________ (1979). The systems approach and its enemies. NY: Basic Books, Inc.

________ (1982). Thought and wisdom. California: Intersystems Publications.

________ Auebach, L., & Sadan, S. (1975). Thinking for decisions. Deductive quantitative methods. Science Research Associates, Inc.

Cloyd, H. (1996). Didáctica y Técnicas de Aprendizaje Interactivo para el Desarrollo Organizacional. Memoria, CAD Cooperative Arbeitsdidaktik y UAM-A, México.

Cloyd, H. (1997). Taller de Facilitación, CAD Cooperative Arbeitsdidaktik, IIMAS, UNAM y UAM-A, México, 30, 31 de enero y 1o. de febrero.

Collins, D. (1995). A socio-political theory of workplace democracy: Class conflict, constituent reactions and organizational outcomes at a gainsharing facility. Organization Science. 6 (6), 628-643.

Cumming, T.G. & Srivastva, S. (1977). Management of work: a socio-technical systems approach. CA: San Diego.University Associates.

Dachler, H.P., & Wilpert, B. (1978). Conceptual dimensions and boundaries of participation in organizations: A critical evaluation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 1-39.

Damasio, R.A. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. NY: Putnam’s Books.

Delors, J. (1996) La Educación Encierra un Tesoro. Informe a la UNESCO de la Comisión Internacional sobre la Educación para el Siglo XXI.

Downs, A. (1967). Inside Bureaucracy. Boston:Little Brown

Drucker, P.F. (1954). The practice of management. Harper, New York.

------------- (1999) Management’s New Paradigms.

Durkheim, E. (1997). The division of labor in society. NY: The Free Press.

Emery, M.(1997). Open systems is alive and well. Paper presented before the Academy of Management meetings, ODC revision session “Rethinking Sociotecnical System Theory.”

________ (Ed.) (1993). Participative Design for Participative Democracy. Canberra: The Australian National University. Centre for Continuing Education.

________ (1994). The Search Conference: State of the Art 1994. Canberra: The Australian National University. Centre for Continuing Education.

________ (1995). Searching. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamin Publishing..

________ & Purser R. (1996). Search Conferences in Action. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Emery, F.E. (1993). Policy: Appearance and reality, Chapter 6 in, A Systems-based approach to policymaking,

Kenyon B.DeGreene (Ed.), Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

________ (1995). Participative design: effective, flexible and successful, now! The Journal for Quality and Participation, 18 (1), 6-9.

________ (1990). Management by objectives. In participative design for participative democracy. Merrelyn Emery

(Ed.) (1993). Canberra: The Australian National University. Centre for Continuing Education.

________ (1985). Matching effectivities to affordances in design jobs. In Participative Design for Participative Democracy. Merrelyn Emery (Ed.). Canberra: The Australian National University. Centre for Continuing Education.

________ (Ed.) (1981). Systems thinking. Penguin Books Inc. Victoria, Australia.

________ (1977) Futures we are in. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Social Science Division.

________ (1976). Causal path analysis. In Fred Emery (Ed.) (1981). Systems thinking. Penguin. 1(1), 293-298.

________ & Thorsrud, E. (1969). Form and content in industrial democracy. Tavistock, London.

________ & Trist E.L. (1973). Towards a social ecology. NY: Plenum Press.

________ & ________ (1965). The causal texture of organizational environments. Human Relations, 18, 21-32.

Feibleman, J. & Friend, J.W. (1945). The structure and function of organization. Philosophical Review, 54, 19-44.

Finsterbush, K. & Van Wicklin III, W. (1987). The contribution of beneficiary participation to development project effectiveness. Public Administration and Development, 7, 1-23.

Fizdale, R. (1974). The voluntary agency: Structure vs. accountability. Social Casework, 55, 478-483.

Fitzgerald, L. (1997). Living on the Edge. On

Fritz, R. (1989). The Path of Least Resistance. NY: Fawcett Book Group.

Geranmayeh, A. (1992). Organizational learning through interactive planning: Design of learning systems for ideal-seeking organizations. University of Pennsylvania. Ph.D. Dissertation.

Gibson, J.J. (1983). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Illinois: Waveland Press Inc. Prospects Heights.

Goodykoontz, L.,& Miller, M.H. (1990). Does participatory management make a difference? Journal of Nursing Administration, 20 (6), 7-29.

Gordon, T.J. (1992) Chaos in social systems. Technological forecasting and social change, 42 (1), 1-16.

Gormley, W.T. Jr. (1989). Taming the Bureaucracy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Gregersen, H., & Sailer, L. (1993) Chaos theory and its implications for social science research. Human Relations, 46 (7), 777-802.

Grunow, D. (1995). The research design in organization studies: Problems and prospects. Organization Science, 6 (1), 93-103.

Hart, S.L. (1992). An integrative framework for strategy-making processes. Academy of Management Review, 17, 334.

Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of interpersonal relations. NY:John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Hirst, P. (1994). Associative Democracy. Amberts: The University of Massachusetts Press.

Hirsch, S. H. & Shulman, L.C. (1976). Participatory governance: A model for shared decision-making. Social Work in Health Care, 1 (4), 433-446.

Hyneman, C.S. (1950) Bureaucracy in a democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers.

Isham, J., Narayan D., and Pritchett L. (1995) Does participation improve performance? Establishing causality with subjective data. The World Bank Economic Review, 9 (2) 175-200.

Jiménez, J. (1987). El Papel de la Reunión de Reflexión y Diseño en Procesos de Evaluación. Comunicaciones Técnicas (70). IIMAS, UNAM, México.

Jiménez, J., Aguirre, J., y Escalante, J. C. (1996b). "La Reunión de Reflexión y Diseño en la Vinculación de Instituciones de Educación Superior y Empresas". Ponencia dictada en el Coloquio Internacional Aprendizaje Tecnológico, Innovación y Políticas Industriales en América Latina. México, D.F., 25-27 de septiembre.

Jiménez, J., Aguirre, J., y Escalante, J. C. (1997c). La Reunión de Reflexión y Diseño en la Vinculación de Instituciones de Educación Superior y Empresas, en Casas, R. y Valenti, G. (eds.). Dos Ejes en la Vinculación de Instituciones de Educación Superior y Empresas, (en prensa).

Jurgen, K. (1995). The contribution of natural science concepts to current discussion of order. Gestalt Theory, 17 (2), 153-163.

Kanter, R.M. (1982). Dilemmas of managing participation. Organizational Dynamics, 11 (1), 5-27.

Katz, D. & Kahn, R.L. (1966). Common characteristics of open systems. In Systems thinking. Emery F. (Ed.) (1981).Australia: Penguin Books Inc. Victoria.

Katz, D., and R. L. Kahn. (1969). “Common Characteristics of Open Systems.” In Systems Thinking, edited by F. E. Emery. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books Ltd.

Kiel, L.D. (1994). Managing chaos and complexity in government. CA: San Francisco Jossey-Bass Inc. Publishers.

Kimberly, J.R., & Bouchikhi, H. (1995). The dynamics of organizational development and change: How the past shapes the present and constraints the future. Organization Science, 6 (1) 9-18.

Kingdon, D.R. (1973). Matrix organization. Tavistock, London

Korten, D.C. (1980). Community organization and rural development: A learning process approach. Public Administration Review, 480-506.

Kosslyn, S.M. & Osherson, D.N. (Eds) (1995). Visual Cognition. The MIT Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Kottak, C. P. (1985). When people don’t come first: Some sociological lessons from completed projects. In Putting People First. Sociological Variables in Rural Development. Michael Cernea, (Ed.). England: Oxford University Press.

Kranz H. (1976). The Participatory Bureaucracy. Lexington Books. D.C. Lexington, Massachusetts: Heath and Company.

Kramer, J.T.A. (1977). Systems thinking. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Social Sciences Division.

Langley, A., Mintzberg, H., Pitcher, P., Posada, E., & Saint-Macay, J. (1995). Opening up decision making: The view from the black stool. Organization Science, 6 (3) 260-279.

Laroche, H. (1995). From decision to action in organizations: Decision-making as a social representation.

Organization Science, 6 (1) 62-75.

Levinson, H. (1970). Management by whose objectives? Harvard Business Review. (July-August),pp.125-135.

Likert, R. (1958). Measuring organizational performance. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1958, 41-52.

_______ (1967). The human organization. New York:McGraw-Hill.

Lippitt, R. & White, R.K. (1943). The Social Climate of Children’s Groups. Child Behaviours & Development. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Lloyd, A.L. (1995). Computing bouts of prisoner’s dilemma. Scientific American, 110-115.

Locke, E.A., Schweiger, D.M., & Latham, G.P. (1986). Participation in decision-making: When should it be used? Organizational Dynamics, 14 (3), 47-65.

Lowin, A. (1968). Participative decision making: A model, literature critique, and prescriptions for research. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3, 68-106.

Macdonald, S. (1995). Learning to change: An information perspective on learning in the organization. Organization Science, 6 (5), 557-568.

Mainzer L.C. (1973). Political Bureaucracy. Glenview, Illinois: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Malka, S. (1989). Managerial behavior, participation, and effectiveness in social welfare organizations. Administration in Social Work, 13 (2), 47-65.

Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F.J. (1980). Autopoiesis & cognition. Dordrecht: Reidel

McCaffrey D.P., Faerman, S.R., & Hart, D.W. (1995). The appeal and difficulties of participative systems. Organization Science, 6, (6), 603-627.

Meyer, M.W. (1977). Theory of organizational structure. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merril Educational Publishing.

Morgan, G. (1986). Images of organizations. Newbury Park, CA:Sage Publications.

Mooney, J.D. (1939). The principles of organization. NY: Harper and Brothers.

Mott, P.E. (1972). The characteristics of effective organizations. NY: Harper and Row Publishers.

Neuman, E. (1962). The origin and history of consciousness. Volume II. NY: Harper & Brothers.

Nohria, N. & Berkley, J.D. (1994). Whatever happened to the take-charge manager? Harvard Business Review, 72 (1), 128-137

Nowak, M.A., May, R.M., & Sigmund, K. (1995). The arithmetics of mutual help. Scientific American, 76-81.

Ormerod, P. (1995). The death of economics. NY:San Martin Press.

Packard, T. (1989). Participation in decision-making, performance, and job satisfaction in a social work bureaucracy. Administration in Social Work, 13 (1), 59-73.

________ (1993). Managers’ and workers’ views of the dimensions of participation in organizational decision-making. Administration in Social Work, 17 (2), 53-65.

Papandreou, A.A. (1994). Externality and institutions. Oxford: Clareden Press.

Pepper, S. (1942). World hypotheses. CA: University of California Press. 1970.

Peters, C., & Nelson, M. (Eds.) (1979). The culture of bureaucracy. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Peters, B.G., & Savoie, D.J. (Eds.) (1995) Governance in a changing environment.Canadian Centre for Management Development. McGill-Queen’s University Press

Pinchot, Gifford & Elizabeth (1993) The end of bureaucracy & the rise of the intelligent organization. San Francisco: Berrett-Keohler Publishers.

Pretty, J. N., Guijt, I., Shah, P., and Hindchcliffe, F. (1996). International Institute for Environment and Development. London, UK.

Prychitko, D.L. (1993). Formalism in Austrian-school welfare economics: Another pretense of knowledge? Critical Review, 7 (4), 567-587.

Purser, R. (1997). Shallow versus deep organizational development and environmental sustainability. Journal of organizational change and development. On line:

Resnick, H., & Patti, R.J. (1980). Change from within: Humanizing social welfare organization. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Resnick, M. (1996). Beyond the Centralized Mindset. Journal of the Learning Sciences. 5 (1), 1 22.

Senge, P. (1991). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. Cambridge, MA: Double Day.

Shrivastava, P. (1983). A typology of organizational learning systems. Journal of Management Studies, 20 (1), 7-28.

Shenhar, Y. (1995). From chaos to systems: The engineering foundations of organization theory, 1879-1932. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 557-585.

Simon. H. (1991). Bounded rationality and organizational learning. Organization Science, 2 (1), 125-134.

Schon, D. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Snyman, J.H. (1994). An empirical investigation of an integrative strategic management process model. Ph.D. diss. New Mexico State University. Las Cruces (Diss.Abstr. 94-123).

Sommerhoff, G. (1974). Logic of the living brain. London: John Wiley.

Soros, G. (1996). The capitalist threat. The Atlantic monthly (Feb-97).Stein, E.W. (1987). Participatory planning: An interactive management approach. AORN Journal, 46 (3), 508-517.

Terry, L.D. (1995) Leadership of public bureaucracies. Sage Publications Inc.

Thiertart, R.A., & Forgues, B. (1995). Chaos theory and organization. Organization Science, (1).

Toch, H., & Grant, J.D. (1982). Reforming human services: Change through participation. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.

Trist, E., & Murray, H. (1993). The Social Engagement of Social Science: A Tavistock anthology. The sociotechnical perspective, V. 2. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Trist, E.L. & Bamforth, K. W. (1951). Social and psychological consequences of the Longwall method of coal-getting. Human Relations, 4(1),3-38.

Toman, M.A. (1994). Economics and “sustainability”; balancing trade-offs and imperatives. Land Economics, 70 (4), 399-413.

Tulku, T. (1990). Knowledge of time and space. Berkeley, CA: Dharma Publishing.

Turner, J.T. (1991). Participative management: Determining employee readiness. Administration and policy in Mental Health, 18 (5), 333-341.

USAID (1996). Strategic objectives for Ecuador. [Online]. Available e-mail Gopher://

Van Eijnatten, F. M. (1993). The Paradigm that changed the Work Place. Stockholm: The Swedish Center for Working Life.

Vergara, J. M., Díaz, P., y Carvajal, R. (1983). Segunda Conferencia de Búsqueda. Proyecto: "La Alimentación del Futuro". Comunicaciones Técnicas (35). IIMAS, UNAM, México.

Wandemberg, J.C. (1998). Sustainable by design? Economic development and natural resource use. Ph.D. diss. New Mexico State University. Las Cruces (Diss. Abstr.)

Wandemberg J.C. (2015). Sostenible por Diseño: Desarrollo Económico, Social y Ambiental. Amazon, CreateSpace.

Weatherly, R.A. (1983). Participatory management in public welfare: What are the prospects? Administration in Social Work, 7 (1), 39-49.

Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. NY: The Free Press.

Weber, S., & Polm, D. (1974). Participatory management in public welfare. Social Casework, 55, 299-306.

Westley, F. & Vredenburg, H. (1996). Sustainability and the corporation. Journal of Management Inquiry. 5 (2), 104-119.

Wichterman, Dana. (1995).Issue paper #2. Economic growth, Sustainability, and Sustainable Development. Document Paper: PN-ABU-374. Research and Reference Services Project. United States Agency for International Development. Center for Development Information and Evaluation. Washington D.C. 20523-1820.

Williams, T. (1979). The Search Conference in Active Adaptive Planning. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. 15 (4).Educational Leadership. (March 1991). Theme Issue on “The Reflective Educator.” Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Developmnent.

Wittrock, M.C. (1974). “Learning as a Generative Process.” Educational Psychologist 11: 87–95.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

License URL:

 © 2016-2017 by International Journal of Research and Education

Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY

ISSN 2398-3760